Plunger Pumps &
- Water Jetting
- Process Technics
Plunger pumps, also often just called piston pump by layman, belong to the group of oscillating positive displacement pumps - one of the oldest pump types. The displacers in plunger pumps are moved/pressed by crankshafts which is integral to the pump and the pump has one or more cylinders. The displacer of this pump is called “plunger”. In contrast to piston pumps the plunger “dives” through a fixed seal into a sealed off working space, displacing the fluid.
Technical Basic Specifications:
up to 240 m³/h
up to 35.000 m
up to 3.500 bar
up to 2.000 mPas
- 40 °C up to + 200 °C
Benefits Plunger Pumps
- configurable for almost any fluid
- linear performance curve
- capable of pumping against highest pressures
- highest possible efficiency
- small size
- low energy consumption
- high flow rate at high pressure
KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG
Salinger Feld 10
Fon: +49 2302 8903 0
Fax: +49 2302 8903 13
Mr. Andres Meyer
Business Development-Sales Director
Fon: +49 (0) 2302 890325
Contact regional Sales Manager:
Since 1974 KAMAT is making use of water pressure with extremely powerful and reliable high-pressure systems. The company has been developing a wide range of high-pressure technology applications. Today KAMAT designs and manufactures state of the art plunger pumps, high pressure systems as well as pump accessories. Their products convince customers in various applications worldwide; they are used in mines in Australia and on drilling rigs in the Atlantic Ocean.
Our product range
Plunger Pumps &
- Water Jetting
- Process Technics
Publications & Brochures
Technical changes in the pump programme implicate more power input, standardisation and simplification
Panta rhei – Everything flows! Same at KAMAT! The pump and pump system manufacturer from Witten, Germany, proudly presents the future plunger pump programme as an overview in a new – and very trendy 8-sided Plunger Pump Portfolio leaflet with its new design. As one can see therein, it had to be designed in the occasion of KAMAT engineers are currently working on a number of technical developments and optimisation of their pumps in order to gain: more power input, standardisation and simplification.
“Though, still working on the last final details of the planned modifications and their realisation, we have decided to summarise all technical changes preliminary in this overview leaflet file, which we have already published. To be up-to-date, herewith, we have uploaded the leaflet’s online-version for all who are interested. We hope that the portfolio‘s new look, design and format will suit everybody and what is more important to us, that it will be helpful to everybody who is searching for the right pump. Much more we are pleased about the occasion for designing and publishing the new brochure and this is the re-designing of our pump programme”, says Managing Director Dipl. Ing. Jan Sprakel.
More outline: Of previous 13 pumps in the performance list soon only 11 remain
What will change in detail: The manufacturer’s pump programme will be tightened, unified and easier in the future. Of the previous 13 pump types in the current performance list only 11 will remain, with no losses but optimisation. The current M-Head will be omitted without loss of pressure litre options. The MCH-Head will be re-named as M, because it replaces the old M-Head. The MC-Head becomes M2-Head. The new M-Head and M2-Head will be available in any performance level with plate valves and soft valves. With the changeover all heads will be re-engineered with the objective to achieve lower NPSH-values and thus avoiding cavitation.
New replacement sets not needed, future pump-heads smaller and lighter in weight
In the future KAMAT pump heads will be smaller in their design size and thus lighter in weight. The good news for all customers and users of KAMAT plunger pumps: New replacement sets are not needed and all previous mounting parts still fit. The gear geometry and intersection will stay the same, too. A1- and A2-Head remain the same, just with standardisation of the suction hoses. The benefit to the customer is next to flexibility very clearly the NPSH optimisation with lower values. Furthermore, in each design size there is the opportunity to customise the valve design size depending on the fluid. The integrated oil coolers remain available for the mining industry.
The changes at a glance:
K40000-3G / 400 kW -> Upgrade to K45000-3G/ up to 450 kW
K50000-5G / 530 kW -> Upgrade to K55000-5G/ up to 550 kW
K80000-5G / 800 kW -> Upgrade to K100000-5G/ up to 1000 kW = 1 MW
K120000-5G / 1200 kW -> Upgrade to K150000-5G/ up to 1500 kW = 1.5 MW
Pump Heads (A- and M-Head)
MCH-Head becomes M-Head MC-Head becomes M2-Head
Both heads can get either plate valves or soft sealing valves.
Please refer also to the manufacturer’s website (www.kamat.de) where all information is updated continuously. New pump performance lists are in preparation for publishing and not available on the website yet. As this is a continuous process, it might lead to inconsistencies of information available online. Please note, that KAMAT’s revised pump finder is already online and up-to-date.
If there are any questions don’t hesitate to contact the Plunger Pump manufacturer KAMAT also directly.
Source & Picture: KAMAT
German plunger pumps specialist as guests in the environmental technology podcast
As of now, KAMAT, the pump manufacturer from Witten, can be heard on a podcast! In cooperation with Messe München the company produced a B2B-podcast. Being guests in episode 05 of the environmental technology podcast series Working Hero presented by IFAT: Company founder Karl J. Sprakel and managing director Jan G. Sprakel.
Podcast Working Hero presented by IFAT - KAMAT as expert in an industry’s discussion
We are convinced that this medium offers the audience added value and that our company is not only presented in a format that meets the zeitgeist, but will remain timeless. Every two weeks, in the industry podcast of environmental technology, experts from the industry talk about important topics and trends from the industry. The motto of the podcast series is not only Working Hero presented by IFAT, the world's leading environmental technology trade fair, but is also dedicated to real working heroes in the industry. Host Felix Kirschenbauer discusses new technologies, projects, ideas and future visions within the water, sewage, waste and raw materials management industry with different industry experts.
KAMAT's working hero from the very beginning: Company founder Karl J. Sprakel
The company is pleased that they were able to win their working hero from the very beginning: their company founder Karl J. Sprakel, without whom KAMAT would not exist today, for the podcast. Still with his heart and soul today, he tells the story of the company's origins in episode 05. While Mr. Sprakel senior tells one or the other anecdote from the founding time with shiny eyes (which you cannot see but feel in the podcast!), Jan G. Sprakel speaks enthusiastically, from the perspective of the second generation. He, as a working hero of the present, talks about the current situation of high-pressure technology, as one of two managing directors and especially as chief engineer. Not only did he inherit KAMAT, he also works successfully for the family company every day. Junior and senior not only have a passion for their ideas and products in common, but above all for them KAMAT means family, that is also the melody and tone of the company, taking responsibility for the employees, taking care of its people like for one’s own family.
Let yourself be carried away on an exciting journey into the past, present and future of KAMAT ... Listen directly, hear the company’s melody!
To the podcast (click here) and everywhere one can get podcasts.
Source & Picture: KAMAT / IFAT
New construction project and expansion of the safety valve range of use completed
The new family of safety valves is covering all KAMAT pumps up to 3,500 bar and up to 4,700 l/min.
The technical development of KAMAT plunger pumps is a continuous process. The development department at KAMAT recently carried out a project, the aim of which was to completely revise the safety valves used on the pumps and to adjust them even better to pressure and volume flow.
The project’s result: Modern, precise, precisely repeatable, safe
The development department's project has now been successfully completed. “We are proud to present the new safety valves to our customers, which have significant advantages over the ones previously used. The advantages of the new ones can essentially be summarized in these three points: They are modern, precise, precisely repeatable and safe”, announces Managing Director Dipl.-Ing. Jan Sprakel.
KAMAT uses the most modern spring technology for the safety valves, which guarantees a precise setting and release of the response pressure. There is also a significant improvement in terms of security. An even higher level of safety than before is guaranteed by the fact that the setting and adjustment of the safety valves is now only possible with special tools.
“Those who receive this special tool are exclusively certified KAMAT partners. In addition to the necessary special tools, only they receive instructions for setting the new valves so that the setting and repair of the safety valves meets the high standards of KAMAT”, says Sprakel, while explaining the new technical principle. With the new safety valves, an even more precise adjustment to the operating pressure and particularly high volume flows of the pumps is possible.
The new safety valves will be manufactured and installed with immediate effect.
Full-lift safety valves in simple or pilot-operated design
All KAMAT safety valves are full-lift valves and available as a single or pilot-controlled version for more flow. All valves are factory-set for the pressure indicated by the customer and lead-sealed prior to delivery. On the housing for single valve versions a rotating bypass connection is installed to drain the leakage medium. The pilot controlled valves are supplied with fixed by-pass connections. To install the pilot-controlled safety valves mounting blocks are required. All safety valves are spring loaded. With this valve family all KAMAT pumps up to 3,500 bar and up to 4,700 l / min can be covered.
Spare parts for previous valves still available
KAMAT also expressly declares that in spite of the further development of the safety valves, customers who have installed the previous safety valves should not be disadvantaged. "Of course, as usual at KAMAT, spare parts for the previous safety valves are still available," Sprakel emphasises. The use of identical parts, where structurally possible is also an advantage for the certified user. “Of course there are adapter flanges for assembly if the connection thread has changed for structural reasons and a replacement is necessary”, says Sprakel.
All technical data and details are available in the download area under pump accessories on KAMAT’s website.
Source: KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG
Graphic: Thomas Schmidt, iconworx
Turnkey high-pressure container unit from KAMAT – available & applicable in short-term
High-pressure technology is KAMAT’s core competence. For decades KAMAT has been established as a leading international system supplier in the field of high-pressure technology for liquids. The company’s claim is simple: Find the best solution for the customer. KAMAT is increasingly supplying complete systems, with the high-pressure plunger pump only being one part, the heart of the system. In their consulting and engineering services, the company goes far beyond the pump. They accompany their customers from the first process idea to the turnkey system and develop individual overall systems.
In KAMAT’s current turnkey high-pressure container unit K40036A-3G-DW530B all latest ideas and engineering services are combined. The new KAMAT high-pressure unit is equipped with a Scania V8 engine, level 5 (latest emissions standard), ZF automated transmission, it is suitable for multiple consumers and applicable for 38-188 l / min @ 1,100 bar. Thanks to the new, fully automatic gearbox, the high-pressure unit can be used in a wide range of applications, because it can convey a lot and little volume flow. In addition, industrial cleaning work can be performed with different water tools at the same time - e.g. multiple high-pressure guns - by using an optional multi-consumer control. In every operating mode, the unit control automatically detects the amount of water required and regulates the engine and transmission. The fully automatic high-pressure unit, which can be delivered and used immediately, was planned and manufactured by KAMAT as a demonstration unit for IFAT 2020. It was to be presented as a KAMAT novelty at IFAT 2020. As is known, the fair has been postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. No reason for KAMAT to withhold it from the interested public and their customers. The company is hereby presenting the new high-pressure unit and its features online.
What are the main features?
- Diesel always runs at the optimal operating point from 38-188 l / min = minimal energy consumption and wear (costs)
- Automated transmission from ZF WITHOUT converter minimises energy consumption (costs)
- Fully automatic control: Regardless of which volume flow is required, the operating pressure setpoint is always and automatically maintained - even in multi-consumer operation (safe and easy operation)
- Control valve with ceramic components for minimal wear (costs)
- Radio remote control
- Remote maintenance for the entire system including motor, wireless (minimising maintenance costs)
- Remote data transmission, wireless
- GPS tracking
- Soundproof container
- Fuel tank for 10 hours of operation
- 2,500 l supply tank
- Display control
- Thermostatically controlled weather protection grille
- Container heating
- Storage space for high-pressure lances
- Storage space for hoses
The high-pressure container unit K40036A-3G-DW530B is turnkey, can be delivered and can be used at short notice. For more information, please contact KAMAT’s sales-team.
Source & Pictures: KAMAT
KAMAT’s pump accessories – ergonomic and safe tools for surface treatment
HP – Spray Gun KSP 3000 operated with electrical remote control connection (without mechanical valve) and the HP – Spray Gun KSP 1500.
For more than 40 years now, the technical development of KAMAT plunger pumps is a continuous process. In the same way, KAMAT develops and produces a wide range of technical accessories for high-pressure applications. KAMAT’s engineers continuously develop and optimise technical cleaning accessories for high-pressure applications up to 3,500 bar/ 50, 800 psi. KAMAT’s experience, acquired in many thousands of applications worldwide, is the basis for the in-house development of accessories, any kind of water and rotating tools, self-propelled or externally driven, for high-pressure applications. These can be smaller parts, such as rotating nozzles for gun operation and manipulators (self-propelled or pneumatically driven), rotating joints (3,200 bar / 46,400 psi) especially designed for mounting on surface cleaners or whole systems, such as the remote-controlled Ship Hull Crawler for the cleaning of large surfaces. KAMAT develops accessories alongside full practical testing. The result: highly functional accessories, absolutely ergonomic and safe tools, which guarantee safe, efficient and fatigue-free work such as KAMAT’s high-pressure guns KSP 1200 and KSP 3000, which have been recently standardised in order to divide the variety in half. The result of the standardisation is that there is the same range of functions with 50 % less variants and an extended pressure range compared to the previous high-pressure gun KSP 1200. The division of the programme into just two pressure levels makes this possible. The KSP 1200 is now the KSP 1500 and suitable for high pressure up to 1,500 bar and the KSP 3000 for maximum pressure up to 3,000 bar.
Fatigue-free work with KAMAT high-pressure guns
The high-pressure cleaning and processing of surfaces with water requires a precise management of the water jet. This precise management is needed to ensure that the required result, e.g. surface finish, is achieved within an adequate time. The method needs to be safe and fatigue-free. With this objective, KAMAT offers the specially developed, in-house produced, high-pressure guns KSP 1500 / KSP 3000 with electrical or mechanical control, completed by different versions of foot valves and rotating gun lances. KAMAT has achieved the extraordinary ergonomics of these devices by innovative solutions, for example, all high-pressure guns are provided with a special pivoting grip which does not transmit any torque to the wrist. In addition, the optimal hose routing for all work situations is easy, since the gun’s hose connection can branch off in all directions when pivoting. This special 360° pivoting grip does not only avoid any torque in the wrist, it also guarantees (amongst other things) fatigue-free work. The handle is highly shock-resistant, rock-solid and extremely robust. A well-known problem with high-pressure guns is that the control cables break easily and that the change of the cable is longsome. KAMAT has solved this problem by designing the gun in a different way. The electric proximity switch is only plugged-in and not glued-in, which makes it easy to be exchanged immediately after a cable failure. Furthermore the high-pressure hose connection of KAMAT’s high-pressure guns point backwards, thus the forces caused by the hose are reduced.
Of utmost importance - safe technology for the safety of people using KAMAT’s equipment
KAMAT follows the philosophy that machine safety is of outmost importance as it is all about the safety of people, who work with their equipment. The company always keeps in mind, that all technical solutions and new developments follow this philosophy. Concerning safety aspects KAMAT’s HP-guns are therefore the safest guns in the market. The range of high-pressure guns is extended by different versions of foot valves, rotating gun lances, rotating nozzles and further accessories for the most varied cases of application, cleaning of surfaces and pipes, removal of paint and coatings, removal of concrete, uncover reinforcement bars, abrasion and washing of concrete and stone. All products for surface cleaning can be fitted to guns and electrically guided equipment, thus many applications are possible with the KAMAT high-pressure gun equipment. The guns are suitable for manual surface cleaning with all type of forms and materials of nozzles.
More information about the HP-gun KSP 1500 / KSP 3000 and accessories for the KSP can be found at https://www.kamat.de/en/pump-accessories/guns-and-foot-valves.html
Source & Picture: KAMAT GmbH
New plunger pump allows maximum performance and extremely high volume flows
KAMAT GmbH & Co. KG, based in Witten, is one of the world's leading system providers for high-pressure technology. Whether jetting, hydraulics or process technology: for over 40 years, KAMAT's expertise has been high pressure pumps, complex high pressure pump systems and high pressure units including pump and high pressure accessories. KAMAT manufactures versatile HP plunger pumps up to 3,500 bar pressure and power inputs of up to 1,200 kW per pump and offers the right solution for any industrial application − whether industrial cleaning, mining hydraulic stations, process pumps in the chemical industry or pressure testing. KAMAT's modular pump design ensures flexible adaptation to changing requirements and the company’s equal parts strategy guarantees customers with multiple pump types to operate with a minimum of maintenance and wearing parts.
New in KAMAT’s portfolio is an extremely powerful five-cylinder high-pressure pump with a power input of 1,200 kW and extreme volume flows. As a quintuplex high-pressure pump KAMAT's K 120000 - 5G offers the possibility of operating in many applications without inlet boost pressure. Its special five-cylinder design allows large volume flows without cavitation in the pump. The pump is used in large hydraulic tasks, especially in water hydraulics and in the steelworks as well as in large plants in the oil and gas industry. The gearbox with external forced oil lubrication and oil cooler enables the high-pressure pump to be operated securely and continuously. The advantages result from the "ecomony of scale": a large pump works more economically than two or three smaller ones and requires significantly less installation space. The user can generate high volume flows with a single, well-controlled pump. This offers clear cost and efficiency advantages.
The characteristics of the Quintuplex high-pressure pump at a glance:
- Quintuplex pump in order to avoid cavitation
- Flow rate is based on 100 % volumetric efficiency and 20°C ambient temperature
- Min. inlet pressure depending on fluid medium
- Speed range 0-100% depending on rod force
- Crankshaft dynamically balanced
- Gear with external force-fed lubrication and oil cooling
- External gear ratio on request e.g.: i = 4,76; 5,72 ; 6,35
- Also available in accordance with API 674 and or ATEX
- Filtration up to 350 µm
- Special media, such as sea water, glycol, methanol, oils, etc. on request
- Flow 158 – 3,939 l/min
- Pressure 115 – 3,500 bar
- Power Input max. 1,200 kw
- Weight 7,500 kg
Source & Picturers: KAMAT GmbH / Thomas Schmidt
Benefits of fewer, but more powerful plunger pumps
Longwall mining operations rely on high pressure pumps to deliver the hydraulic power needed to support and advance the face. As these mines extend the length and height of faces, the flows that must be maintained only increases. At the same time, autonomous operations push the mining system to move the shields more quickly. This responsiveness further increases the demand on hydraulic systems. In today’s high production longwalls, the increasing lengths of longwalls, the support forces associated with the cylinder diameters growing, the higher hydraulic pressures and the speed of the extraction machines all place high demands on the hydraulic supply. Hydraulic plants have to supply the volume flow of the hydraulic emulsion at the required pressure.
High pressure pumping plant for underground mining from KAMAT.
A standard pump for the mining business was a 250 kW pump
In longwall hydraulics, plunger pumps are generally used. While in the 1950s, the used hydraulic pressure for the individual props was approximately 150 bar. 40 years ago it was approximately 200 bar, and around 1990, system pressure was roughly 300 bar. The limiting factors for higher system pressures were mainly sealing issues of cylinders and controls. Since then, the length of the longwalls has grown continuously, system pressures increased on one hand and on the other hand, bigger cylinder diameters of the supporting cylinders are being used in the shields. So, the hydraulic plant has to provide a big flow of hydraulic fluid at a defined, high system pressure.
Today's hydraulic pump plants
Nowadays, HFA emulsions with a water content of 95 - 97% are used. Thus, the application is called water hydraulics; modern emulsions are called micro-emulsions and are an almost clear liquid. Modern hydraulic pump plants for high output longwalls have to provide in the range of 2000 l/min. emulsion at a system pressure of 350 - 420 bar. They have to do this reliably and at a high availability as a loss of the hydraulic supply results in a standstill of the longwall and thus the loss of production. In addition to the high flow of emulsion at a system pressure of 350 - 420 bar, more and more water is used for dust suppression purposes. Water spraying nozzles are integrated into the roof support and shearer drums with the result that the pump plant only easily exceeds 2 MW of installed electrical power for high output longwalls.
Until a few years ago, the typical emulsion pump was a plunger pump with an input power of 90 kW, followed by 130 kW pump. Following the aforementioned increasing flow demands in high output longwalls, the pumps grew to 250 kW and then to 350 kW power input. As longwall hydraulic pump systems are equipped with an arrangement of a number of pumps – typically three or four pumps – depending on the total flow required.
Modern high production longwalls with fast cutting shearers need increasingly large flows of longwall fluid. Previously, this has been achieved by adding more and more small or mid-sized pumps. As a result of increasingly complex pump plants, disadvantages for operational reliability were brought about. The solution for modern pump systems of high production longwalls with big flow demands is therefore to use bigger pumps, which result in a less complex pumping system.
Trend in high production longwalls
Modern longwall hydraulic pump plants are becoming more and more equipped with one to three pumps. Choosing big pumps of 500 kW input power per pump – already used today in high production longwalls – makes it possible to get rid of the otherwise needed suction booster pumps. This means that the plant is simplified, which logically results in lower probability of failure, less service, less maintenance and so on.
Using big pumps leads to much simpler installations, which reduces the associated number of hydraulic and electric components of the pump system. Even if pumps of big input power are used, the dimensions remain reasonable and allow underground transport. Even systems designed for using 1000 kW pumps have a maximum width of 1600 mm. The size of the unloader valves used is adapted to the big flows.
Seeing the advantages of the use of bigger pumps when the flow demands increase, KAMAT has started to drive the development by re-engineering its range of 80 - 400 kW three plunger pumps in a first stage. In addition to the modernisation of the existing range of products, the company extended the range of pumps to bigger power inputs with the development of five plunger pumps, maintaining the target of smooth operation but at bigger flows. Two quintuplex pumps rated at 530 kW and 800 kW named K50000M-5G and K80000M-5G are now available. In longwall operations, the K50000M-5G delivers 640 l/min. at 420 bar or 763 l/min. at 360 bar. The K80000M-5G delivers 1185/min. at 420 bar or 1360 l/min. at 375 bar with other flow and pressure ratios available. This means that the longwall can be powered by one or two pumps only.
High pressure pumping plant with five plunger pump K 50050 M-5G (530 l/min., 375 bar, 375 kW) from KAMAT for a mine in China.
Variable speed drives to control the flow
Hydraulics with bigger pumps equate to a less complex pumping system with less failure probability, less service, less maintenance and consequently, higher efficiency. Big pumps producing big flows increase the demand for flow control. To manage the big flow per pump, the company launched a new range of failsafe smooth acting unloading valves for flows up to 1500 l/min. per pump at 500 bar maximum. Furthermore, the new unloader valves are equipped with inner parts made from solid ceramics and are thus extremely resistant to wear.
The company offers three different sizes of unloaders, developed and manufactured in-house. The three sizes available cover the full range of flow, from the smallest pump sizes to the big 800 kW units. Using frequency-controlled motors leads to a perfect adjustment of the flow produced by the pump to the demand of the longwall. The company’s installations throughout the world show that driving a longwall pump with a variable speed drive (VSD) significantly reduces service necessity and increases availability impressively. KAMAT plants for the mining industry with frequency control are in operation since 2002, when the first VSD-controlled underground pump plant in the world was commissioned at a mine in the Saarland area in Germany. Other pump plant locations with VSD technology are in operation include China, the US and Russia.
The VSD eliminates pressure shocks by adjusting the pumps' drive speed to the flow demand of the longwall without the need for the unloader valve to switch. This reduces wear in all parts of the longwall system downstream the pump system. In periods of high demand, the pump operates at full speed and flow. If the demand is dropping, the speed of the pump is slowed down and adjusted to the flow need of the face. Simultaneously, the energy consumption of the motor, driving the pump is variable.
Another advantage of the VSD is the improved energy efficiency. The company’s pumps can run at 10% nominal speed (10% nominal flow). This reduces load cycles when the longwall is idling or running slow. Running a K50055-5G to supply a face at the typical 320 bar with a variable speed driven motor thus allows a flow spread of 640 l/min. flow at full speed down to 64 l/min. without the need to switch the unloader valve, and without the need for a booster pump.
When the longwall face needs 120%, the system allows one pump to run at full capacity while another runs at 20%. Comparatively, other systems use two pumps running at 60%, which means they would need to use two VSDs, increasing investment costs significantly. It is a fact that those modern pump plant systems with as few pumps as possible, without booster pumps and equipped with frequency converter are verifiable highly energy efficient.
The energy consumption of the pump and the system is minimised as the idling of the pump at full speed, returning fluid into the tank, is avoided. The VSD-controlled pump is operating efficiently and the pump is exactly providing what the longwall needs. Thus, less electrical energy is wasted for pumps idling at full speed. If slave or standby pumps without VSD are idling they are stopped after a programmable time typically shorter than 10 min.
The energy cost saved during the operation of such a VSD-controlled pump plant should be compared with the cost of the VSD drive. Further cost reduction is achieved by the fact that the prevention of pressure shocks leads to increased lifetime of the components under pressure in the system. Three 800 kW pumps – one each as a master, slave and standby unit, a common constellation – are able to generate even very large volume flows at maximum pressures up to 3500 bar, and thus typical face pressures up to 350 - 380 bar at highly economical rates.
High pressure pumping plant from KAMAT in production nearly finished.
Source & Pictures: KAMAT GmbH, Germany