Industrial Centrifugal Pumps
Industrial users can select from numerous pump technologies for water supply and the handling of other liquid media. A particular favorite is the centrifugal pump. How do centrifugal pumps work? What different delivery principles are there? For which applications are centrifugal pumps especially well-suited?
Here we provide you an overview of the different types of centrifugal pumps. In addition, the operating principles are explained, and typical applications are listed also.
How does a centrifugal pump work?
As a fluid-handling machine, the centrifugal pump is a so-called flow machine. Its name already indicates how a centrifugal pump delivers media: The driven machines pump the liquid using a type of spinning element. A rotating shaft generates dynamic forces.
The operating principle of the centrifugal pump can also be explained using a simple experiment: When water is stirred in a glass, it creates a flow that causes the water to be pushed up on the outside at the edge of the glass and down in the middle. In centrifugal pumps, the impeller takes on the function of the spoon. The rotating pump based on this principle was invented as early as the 17th century. Since then, the operating principle has been the same in all centrifugal pumps:
• The impeller inside the pump – the gyroscope after which it is named – is set into motion via a drive shaft.
• The acceleration of the impeller is transferred to the liquid.
• The resulting centrifugal force pushes the pumped fluid towards the outer edge of the impeller, which is why rotary pumps are sometimes referred to as centrifugal pumps.
• This process causes the liquid to be pushed through the output port of the centrifugal pump.
• At the same time, negative pressure is created in the pump, which continuously draws in more liquid.
Given the constant movement, rotating pumps are very well-suited for continuous use in industry and trade, where their high pump output is advantageous. Since the discovery of the operating principle, the technology has been refined time and time again. Today, there are many different variants that are suitable for a wide range of different applications.
What are typical applications for industrial centrifugal pumps?
Since centrifugal pumps can deliver high quantities of fluid, they are often used for water supply and water treatment. In water works, distribution networks, processing and also in building services engineering, radial pumps and axial-flow pumps ensure that the base load demand is covered reliably. But they can handle much more than just water. They are usable for nearly every low-viscouls fluid in all industries.
Peripheral pumps serve the opposite purpose: If there are particularly small volumes to handle, the peripheral pump, which is significantly smaller than the radial pumps, can demonstrate its advantages – especially if there is high operating pressure. This is the case, for example, in many processes in the chemical industry, but also for pressure increase and cooling.
Do you need to handle media whose temperature is close to the boiling point or higher gas content? Then the side channel pump is often the best choice. The pump can reach very low NPSH values so that it is perfectly suited for media such as condensate, refrigerants or liquid gases.
But despite the large portfolio of vendors, individual applications always produce requirements that cannot be met by common pump types. Such applications are predestined for special pumps. They are used in the chemical industry, for example, where special media must be handled under extreme conditions. Examples include sulfuric acid, contaminated chemicals and fertilizers. Many of these fluids can be handled with plastic pumps: In contrast to metal alloys, certain plastics can cover the entire concentration range of sulfuric acid. Pumps whose components in contact with media are made of plastics can deliver the acid without any problems.
If leakproofness is particularly important, for example, when handling extremely toxic media, then the canned motor pump is often the pump of choice. Its special design principle separates the rotor space from the stator of the drive motor: As a result, the pump operates hermetically, ensuring safe operation, even for critical media.
Drum and Container pumps are often used for transferring, filling or emptying drums, IBC’s or other containers. They are characterized by their flexible application possibilities and nevertheless high flow rates.
The right technology for every application
The following applies to industrial pumps: Every application is different. Manufacturers of centrifugal pumps have specialized in sophisticated technologies to find the right pump for all industries and every application. By selecting the right pump type, users can be certain that the pump meets all of their requirements.
Would you like to learn more about pump types? The overview of the different types of positive displacement pumps provides the most important facts about this pump technology, how positive displacement pumps differ from centrifugal pumps and for which applications they are better to use.
For industrial users, who know exactly which criteria their new pump must meet, we offer the perfect tool with the PUMPselector. You only need to enter a few pieces of relevant data and then they will receive an overview of suitable solutions from our experienced member companies. Upon request, contact will also be established to experienced experts for direct communication in order to obtain a non-binding quote.