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Surface & component cleaning

Depending on the relevant contamination, the cleaning process of a component / product to be cleaned can be carried out in one or several work processes. In the process, the component / product to be cleaned is covered by undesirable substances such as chips, dust, oils and greases, the impurities or contaminations, and shall be cleaned up in one or several work steps carried out in succession.
The starting point constitutes the workpiece to be cleaned (product to be cleaned). This can consist of unmachined or hardly machined workpieces such as steels, sheets and wires. But also machined workpieces, such as installed components, count as products to be cleaned.
In the process, completely different types of materials can be present, and combinations of various metals and even plastics or composite materials often occur. These materials are playing a more and more important role, because light materials are increasingly used in the automotive industry, for instance. Mass and size can be very important for the cleaning methods to be chosen.

 

Thus, for instance, long shafts of ships are mostly manually (by hand) cleaned, while small shafts for electrical devices are cleaned as bulk goods in highly automated plants, for example. The geometry of the parts is of similar importance. So long, thin and angular drills, for instance, in which there might be still trapped chips, belong to one of the biggest challenges in this field of expertise.
Among other things, robots are used which are programmed so that the drills are exactly rinsed out under high pressure.

A distinction is made hereby between the following cleaning techniques:

  • Manual cleaning techniques
  • Mechanical cleaning techniques
  • Automatic cleaning techniques
  • Robot assisted cleaning techniques

Successful application solutions

Cleaning with an aqueous cleaner as cleaning media.
A further condition when choosing a cleaner is then the question of whether it must be cleaned on site which may be the case during repair and maintenance.

Usually, however, the cleaning takes place in the workshop. In the process, the feeding shall often be integrated in the production process and the cleaning be part of the assembly line, for example, which puts increased demands on the plant engineering with regard to size and throughput capacity.

Such plants are often exactly adjusted to the requirements with respect to the products to be cleaned, contaminations and feeding procedures (special plants). What is still standard, however, are central cleaning devices which are then also often manufactured as multi-task plants, that is they can meet different cleaning requirements. A simple typical example are washbasins or simple automatic cleaning units which can be found in many workshops.

Apart from aqueous cleaning up under temperature effects, the cleaning of components is assisted using additional mechanical methods and coordinated combinations of these methods,
namely:

  • Spraying
  • Squirting
  • Blasting
  • Flooding
  • Steam degreasing
  • Bath circulation
  • Injecting gas
  • Injection flooding
  • Pressure flooding and ultrasonic-assisted

Technologies

radial pumps

Cleaning with solvents as cleaning media.
Here, too, a further condition when choosing a cleaner is then the question of whether it must be cleaned on site which may be the case during repair and maintenance.

Usually, however, the cleaning takes place in the workshop. In the process, the feeding shall often be integrated in the production process and the cleaning be part of the assembly line, for example, which puts increased demands on the plant engineering with regard to size and throughput capacity.

Such plants are often exactly adjusted to the requirements with respect to the products to be cleaned, contaminations and feeding procedures (special plants). What is still standard, however, are central cleaning devices which are then also often manufactured as multi-task plants, that is they can meet different cleaning requirements. A simple typical example are washbasins or simple automatic cleaning units which can be found in many workshops.

Apart from cleaning up the components in organic solvents under temperature effects, the cleaning of components is here also assisted using additional mechanical methods and coordinated combinations of these methods,
namely:

  • Spraying
  • Squirting
  • Blasting
  • Flooding
  • Steam degreasing
  • Bath circulation
  • Injecting gas
  • Injection flooding
  • Pressure flooding and ultrasonic-assisted

Technologies

radial pumps

What is particularly addressed here is the profile of requirements for cleaning components and the procedure(s) used as well as the level of pollution and the chemicals / cleaners used.

Technologies

radial pumps

Sealing variants which are used here include:

  • Single-acting mechanical seal
  • Double-acting mechanical seal (quenching system)
  • Double-acting mechanical seal (pressurisation system)
  • Rinsing the mechanical ring seal from behind
  • Magnetic coupling
  • Sealing by orifice

Technologies

radial pumps

In the process, the hydraulics of the pump are adjusted to the product to be cleaned and to the medium to be cleaned up such as volume flow and system pressures.

Types of hydraulics and housings as well as impellers used while doing so.

Designs:

  • Single-stage centrifugal pumps
  • Multi-stage centrifugal pumps
  • Submersible pumps
  • Spiral housing pumps
  • Impeller-type peripheral pumps
  • Diaphragm pump

Impellers:

  • Closed impeller
  • Open impeller
  • Half-open impeller
  • Channel-type impeller
  • Non-clog impeller
  • Impeller-type peripheral pump
  • Diaphragm

Technologies

radial pumps

  • Klaus-Peter Müller: Praktische Oberflächentechnik. Auflage 2003. XII, vieweg, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden, ISBN 978-3-528-36562-2.
  • Thomas W. Jelinek: Reinigen und Entfetten in der Metallindustrie. 1. Auflage, Leuze Verlag, Saulgau 1999, ISBN 3-87480-155-1.
  • Brigitte Haase: Wie sauber muß eine Oberfläche sein? In: Journal Oberflächentechnik. Nr. 4, 1997.
  • Brigitte Haase: Reinigen oder Vorbehandeln? Oberflächenzustand und Nitrierergebnis, Bauteilreinigung, Prozesskontrolle und -analytik. Hochschule Bremerhaven.
  • Bernd Künne: Online Fachbuch für industrielle Reinigung. In: bauteilreinigung.de. Universität Dortmund, Fachgebiet Maschinenelemente
  • Reiner Grün: Reinigen und Vorbehandeln – Stand und Perspektiven. In: Galvanotechnik. 90, Nr. 7, 1999, S. 1836–1844.
  • Günter Kreisel et al.: Ganzheitliche Bilanzierung/Bewertung von Reinigungs-/Vorbehandlungstechnologien in der Oberflächenbehandlung. Jena 1998, Institut für Technische Chemie der FSU.
  • Martin Bilz, Mark Krieg, Fraunhofer Institut für Produktionsanlagen und Konstruktionstechnik: Methodisches Handeln in der Reinigungstechnik – Sauberkeit effizient planen. In JOT Industrielle Teilereinigung, Vieweg+Teubner Verlag / GWV Fachverlage GmbH Wiesbaden, 1/2009, S. 7–9

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