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Refrigeration & Climate

Industrial refrigeration has become indispensable in our daily lives. Whether it is frozen foods, freeze-dried fruits and vegetables, or tempered cooling facilities and modern server cooling: Modern refrigerants and high-tech systems are used everywhere. And the demands in terms of availability, safety and leak tightness have increased considerably in recent years.

Refrigeration-technology machines and systems are subject to constant changes. The recent ‘F-Gas Regulation’ has, for example, made new refrigerants such as ammonia (R717, NH3) and carbon dioxide (R744, CO2) more and more popular. The requirements in terms of leak tightness and component design are getting higher with increasing vapour pressure of the refrigerant. Even when transporting water or water-glycol mixtures, reliability and easy handling of pumps is of paramount importance.

Refrigeration technology applies pumps in various areas. For example in large systems, pumps transport the refrigerant (e.g., ammonia, carbon dioxide) to the individual evaporators. Hermetic pumps without shaft sealing are predominantly used here due to the high vapour pressure of the refrigerants and the low temperatures (danger of ice build-up). From the evaporators the medium is recycled to the reservoir. The coolant vapour is compressed and cooled in the compressor circuit, so that the medium is condensed and returned to the reservoir as a liquid. ‘Cold’ is also frequently provided to consumers via heat-transfer fluids, such as oil, water or water-glycol mixtures. These media are pumped through an often widely branched network of pipelines to the places in need of refrigeration.

Technologies

Successful application examples

Liquid ammonia (NH3) is a modern refrigerant. When pumping from the reservoir, attention must be paid to a low NHSH value and technical leak tightness. Mostly hermetic pumps are used here.

Technology

Radialpumps

Carbon dioxide, also known as R744 or CO2, is a refrigerant with great future potential. Because of its high vapour pressure, it is necessary to ensure a suitable design of the components and pumps.

Technology

Radialpumps

Alternative refrigerants (R245fa, R290, etc.) or refrigerants with GWP continue to be used in some systems. Hermetic centrifugal pumps offer an attractive, reliable solution here.

Technology

Radialpumps

The most commonly used liquid for distributing heat and cold is water. Water is often mixed with glycol to prevent it from freezing. The centrifugal pump is the most common technology used to pump these media. Mechanical seals are the preferred choice in simple designs. But with higher demands on system availability and MTBF (e.g. mobile application on trains or in difficult-to-access offshore applications), hermetic pumps are increasingly being used.

Technology

Radialpumps

Many modern electronic components generate a large amount of heat and must therefore be cooled to ensure trouble-free operation. A water-glycol mixture, used most commonly, is pumped through an air cooler which then cools the components.  Seal-less (hermetic) pumps have proven themselves in mobile systems. This technology is also often applied to cool transformers by using oil and conveying it through the air coolers.

Technology

Radialpumps

Oils are generally used for refrigerant transport in deep-freeze and freeze-drying applications. These oils are still viscous at low temperatures, which makes centrifugal pumps suitable for use with them. Hermetic pumps are often required at low temperatures in order to avoid damage due to ice build-up and to ensure high system availability.

Technology

Radialpumps

Centrifugal pumps with special designs and materials have proven themselves for very low temperatures. Stainless steel or aluminium, for example, are used as pump materials. The pump and motor often form a unit (canned motor).

Technology

Radialpumps

“The pumping of cryogenic liquids, which are increasingly used in special refrigeration technology, requires special pump designs. Very high demands are placed on the static seals and materials, and the motor technology has to be adapted (liquid-cooled motor).”

Technology

Radialpumps

In absorption refrigeration systems, a substance in a solution (e.g. ammonia or lithium bromide) is used as the refrigerant. In the continuous process, which often takes place in a vacuum, centrifugal pumps convey the solution in the media. Hermetic centrifugal pumps are generally used because the processes take place in a vacuum and the used media must not be released into the environment.

Technology

Radialpumps

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