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Oil & petrochemical industry

The machines and systems are deployed in widely varying applications. In the exploration sector, for example, multiphase components, a mixture of gas and liquids, need to be transported safely. This is where multi screw pumps and centrifugal pumps offer the right solutions most of the time. Viscous media or media contaminated with solids are handled quite often. Different factors–the sulfur content, for example–must be taken into consideration in the different parts of the world in which oil and gas are produced.

New processes have been introduced in the recent past to facilitate fracking and the processing of oil sands, which often place the highest demands on the delivery head. Reciprocating pumps are a typical solution. Further processing is then carried out in refineries. Widely varying fuels and feedstocks are produced from the oil for the chemical industry. The pumps used need to fulfil the highest technical safety-relevant requirements and satisfy high availability requirements. Centrifugal pumps or vacuum pumps are often utilized. The tendency towards ever greater demands regarding availability and safety as well as the lowest possible emissions mean that in addition to complicated shaft packing systems, sealless, canned drives are also increasingly being deployed, such as magnetic couplings or canned motor pumps. These pumps are often distinguished by long MTBFs and long maintenance intervals. 

 

Schematic of the typical processes in a refinery:

 


Multistage pumps for liquids with gas contents and for gas enrichment

Successful application solutions

Reflux pumps convey kerosene, diesel and other media at discharge pressures of 10-40 bar and temperatures up to 400 degrees Celsius. The materials used include cast steel, high-alloy steels and stainless steels. High temperatures and pressures place enormous demands on the pump technology. The API 610 describes the typical demands placed on centrifugal pumps. Double mechanical seals to API 682 are used almost exclusively, or canned solutions to API 685, which are increasingly being used.  

Technologies

radial pumps

Transfer pumps convey kerosene, diesel, naphtha and other media to refineries for further processing. Temperatures above 200 degrees Celsius as well as highly flammable media demand that the greatest care is taken when selecting the pumps. The API 610 describes the typical demands placed on centrifugal pumps. Double mechanical seals to API 682 are used almost exclusively, or canned solutions to API 685, which are increasingly being used. 

Technologies

radial pumps

Heavy gas oil, heavy diesel, isomax and slop pumps place different demands on the pump technology. For clean media, reliable, emission-free pumps are recommended with high MTBF (API 610, API 682 and increasingly pumps that comply with API 685).

Technologies

radial pumps

Multistage vacuum systems are used to create the vacuum in this step of the distillation process. These consist of jet ejector systems and liquid vacuum pumps on the atmosphere side. Designed to API 681, fitted with shaft seals to API or as canned versions to API 685, these form a reliable, rugged solution. 

Technologies

radial pumps

The hydrotreating process cleans the petroleum distillates of impurities such as sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Centrifugal pumps are generally used when moderate temperatures (up to 200 °C) and pressures up to 45 bar are involved. Preferred materials are steels and high-alloyed steels. 

Technologies

radial pumps

The hydrotreating process cleans the petroleum distillates of impurities such as sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Centrifugal pumps are generally used when moderate temperatures (up to 200 °C) and pressures up to 45 bar are involved. Preferred materials are steels and high-alloyed steels. 

Technologies

radial pumps

The residue from the distillation tower is heated to more than 450 °C in the so-called coker. That breaks down the residue into heavy oils, petrol and naphtha. The name of the process is derived from the black residue that is composed almost entirely of carbon (‘coke’).

Technologies

radial pumps

 

Centrifugal pumps are generally used when moderate temperatures (up to 200 °C) and pressures up to 45 bar are involved. Preferred materials are steels and high-alloyed steels. The relevant standards are the API 610, API 682 (for mechanical seals) or also the API 685 (for canned centrifugal pumps). 

Technologies

radial pumps

Gas flows containing CO2 and H2S are cleaned with the aid of different amine solutions (including MEA, DEA, MDEA). Pumps that comply with API standards and NACE requirements are utilized for temperatures from 30-130 °C and pressures up to 80 bar. Canned pumps also offer the advantage of being technically sealed to reliably convey toxic or strong-smelling media.

Technologies

radial pumps

Sulphur removal in compliance with the latest environmental standards is one of the core processes of a refinery. The sulfur removed from the product is processed and sold as a pure element. The liquid sulfur is conveyed at high temperatures in special heated pumps, which are in part constructed as submersible pumps. The sour water pumps are design to comply with API and NACE standards. 

Technologies

radial pumps

Liquefied gas transfer pumps must meet installation conditions, requirements to explosion prevention level and should excel by good energy efficiency, gas production rate and NPSH values.  The delivery rate and pressures depend on the relevant types of application. Actuation is effected via corresponding three-phase A.C. motors. 

Technologies

radial pumps

 

Unloading pumps in mobile use are driven by hydraulic motors which are provided with pressure by the vehicle.  Small installation dimensions and low noise emission are advantageous.  Depending on the relevant application, feeding of the final consumer tank takes place with or without pendulum line, by means of which different pressure levels can be balanced in the discharging and receiving tank. A lack of this pendulum line leads to higher pressure differences which the pump must overcome. 

Technologies

radial pumps

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