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Pumps for oil, gas & petrochemical industry


In the oil, gas and petrochemical industry many different types of pumps are used in machines and installations. There is no such thing as the one and only pump in this branch. The choice of pump depends on the final application, which ranges from the exploration, delivery and recirculation as well as further transport for loading/unloading of tanks, tanker trucks and ships.

The right pump for oil and gas delivery

In the different parts of the world in which oil and gas is extracted, all types of different requirements must be observed, e.g. due to the sulfur content. In exploration, for example, it is often required to safely transport multi-phase mixtures (mixtures consisting of gas and fluids). In this case, centrifugal and screw spindle pumps are generally the right solution, because these pumps can safely handle viscous media or media contaminate with solids which often occur.

Pumps for difficult delivery conditions

In the most recent past, fracking and the processing of oil sands have brought about new processes that frequently impose the highest demands on the head. A typical solution consists of piston or plunger pumps. Further processing takes place in refineries, where all types of different fuel and source materials for the chemical industry are produced. The pumps used here have to meet the highest safety requirements. For this reason, centrifugal pumps or even vacuum pumps / liquid ring vacuum pumps are used. The tendency towards ever more stringent requirements on availability, safety and lowest emissions means that next to expensive shaft sealing systems, an increasing number of seal-less, hermetic drives – such as the magnetic coupling or the canned motor pump – are used, which are suitable for explosive atmospheres 1 & 2. These pumps often excel with a long mean time between failures (MTBF) and long maintenance intervals.

Schematic of the typical processes in a refinery


Schematic of the typical processes in a refinery

Application examples for pumps in the oil, gas and petrochemical industry

·    Drilling / fracking
·    Oil and gas delivery / pipelines
·    Processing in refineries
·    Cracking / hydrocracking
·    Reforming
·    Liquefied gas handling
·    Downstream, midstream, upstream
·    Gas drying
·    Oil cooling
·    Refinery applications

An integrated canned motor pump

Application examples for pumps in the oil, gas and petrochemical industry

•    Oil / crude oil / crude
•    Oil-gas mixtures
•    Gas / biogas
•    Gaseous fluids
•    Liquefied gases
•    Chemical intermediate and end products
(ethylene, propylene, butene, benzene, toluene, xylene and their sub-products)

An integrated liquid ring vacuum pump
Multistage pump for liquids with gas contents and for gas enrichment

Multistage pumps for liquids with gas contents and for gas enrichment.

Successful application solutions

Reflux pumps convey kerosene, diesel and other media at discharge pressures of 10-40 bar and temperatures up to 400 degrees Celsius. The materials used include cast steel, high-alloy steels and stainless steels. High temperatures and pressures place enormous demands on the pump technology. The API 610 describes the typical demands placed on centrifugal pumps. Double mechanical seals to API 682 are used almost exclusively, or canned solutions to API 685, which are increasingly being used.  

Technologies

radial pumps

Transfer pumps convey kerosene, diesel, naphtha and other media to refineries for further processing. Temperatures above 200 degrees Celsius as well as highly flammable media demand that the greatest care is taken when selecting the pumps. The API 610 describes the typical demands placed on centrifugal pumps. Double mechanical seals to API 682 are used almost exclusively, or canned solutions to API 685, which are increasingly being used. 

Technologies

radial pumps

Heavy gas oil, heavy diesel, isomax and slop pumps place different demands on the pump technology. For clean media, reliable, emission-free pumps are recommended with high MTBF (API 610, API 682 and increasingly pumps that comply with API 685).

Technologies

radial pumps

Multistage vacuum systems are used to create the vacuum in this step of the distillation process. These consist of jet ejector systems and liquid vacuum pumps on the atmosphere side. Designed to API 681, fitted with shaft seals to API or as canned versions to API 685, these form a reliable, rugged solution. 

Technologies

radial pumps

The hydrotreating process cleans the petroleum distillates of impurities such as sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Centrifugal pumps are generally used when moderate temperatures (up to 200 °C) and pressures up to 45 bar are involved. Preferred materials are steels and high-alloyed steels. 

Technologies

radial pumps

The hydrotreating process cleans the petroleum distillates of impurities such as sulfur, oxygen and nitrogen. Centrifugal pumps are generally used when moderate temperatures (up to 200 °C) and pressures up to 45 bar are involved. Preferred materials are steels and high-alloyed steels. 

Technologies

radial pumps

The residue from the distillation tower is heated to more than 450 °C in the so-called coker. That breaks down the residue into heavy oils, petrol and naphtha. The name of the process is derived from the black residue that is composed almost entirely of carbon (‘coke’).

Technologies

radial pumps

 

Centrifugal pumps are generally used when moderate temperatures (up to 200 °C) and pressures up to 45 bar are involved. Preferred materials are steels and high-alloyed steels. The relevant standards are the API 610, API 682 (for mechanical seals) or also the API 685 (for canned centrifugal pumps). 

Technologies

radial pumps

Gas flows containing CO2 and H2S are cleaned with the aid of different amine solutions (including MEA, DEA, MDEA). Pumps that comply with API standards and NACE requirements are utilized for temperatures from 30-130 °C and pressures up to 80 bar. Canned pumps also offer the advantage of being technically sealed to reliably convey toxic or strong-smelling media.

Technologies

radial pumps

Sulphur removal in compliance with the latest environmental standards is one of the core processes of a refinery. The sulfur removed from the product is processed and sold as a pure element. The liquid sulfur is conveyed at high temperatures in special heated pumps, which are in part constructed as submersible pumps. The sour water pumps are design to comply with API and NACE standards. 

Technologies

radial pumps

Liquefied gas transfer pumps must meet installation conditions, requirements to explosion prevention level and should excel by good energy efficiency, gas production rate and NPSH values.  The delivery rate and pressures depend on the relevant types of application. Actuation is effected via corresponding three-phase A.C. motors. 

Technologies

radial pumps

 

Unloading pumps in mobile use are driven by hydraulic motors which are provided with pressure by the vehicle.  Small installation dimensions and low noise emission are advantageous.  Depending on the relevant application, feeding of the final consumer tank takes place with or without pendulum line, by means of which different pressure levels can be balanced in the discharging and receiving tank. A lack of this pendulum line leads to higher pressure differences which the pump must overcome. 

Technologies

radial pumps

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